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甲骨文 Jiaguwen

  甲骨文

  中国现存最早的文字是甲骨文。甲骨文就是刻在龟甲或兽骨上的文字。主要是商代的文字。

  商代甲骨文是1899年由清代学者王懿(yi)荣发现的,出土地点主要在河南安阳,那里曾经是商代晚期的都城。

  在这之前,河南安阳小屯村的农民,经常发现刻着奇怪文字的龟甲和兽骨,他们不认识上面的字,就把甲骨当作药材卖给了药店。王懿荣从买来的中药中发现了这些龟甲、兽骨,经过研究,他认为,刻在甲骨上的文字,是3,000多年前商代的文字。

  到目前为止,从河南安阳出土的有字甲骨共10多万片,发现甲骨文单字4,500个左右,已经确认的约有1,700字。这些文字,大都是商代统治者占卜祭祀时的祝辞和简单记事。甲骨文以象形字为主,笔划匀称,字形美观,这说明,甲骨文的形成,已经经过了相当长的发展过程。甲骨文是中国最早的、成熟的汉字,它为研究汉字的起源提供了重要的实物资料。

  过去,人们一般把商代甲骨文当作中国最早的文字。20世纪80年代,又从西安市郊区出土了少量的有字甲骨,经过考古学家研究证明,这些甲骨文比商代甲骨文还要早,距今已有4,000年左右的时间。

  The earliest extant characters in China are jiaguwen carved on tortoise shells or animal bones, mainly during the Shang Dynasty (17th-11th century BC).

  Jiaguwen of the Shang Dynasty was discovered in 1899 by Wang Yirong, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty. The inscriptions were unearthed in Anyang of Henan Province that was the capital in the late Shang Dynasty.

  Before the discovery, villagers of the Xiaotun Village in Anyang of Henan Province often found tortoise shells and animal bones carved with strange characters. They did not know what they were and sold them as medical materials to drugstores. Wang Yirong discovered these tortoise shells and animal bones among some Chinese medicine he had bought. After research, he believed that the characters carved on tortoise shells and animal bones were those of the Shang Dynasty more than 3,000 years ago.

  So far, altogether more than 100,000 pieces of tortoise shells and animal bones have been excavated from Anyang; about 4,500 Chinese characters have been discovered on tortoise shells and animal bones, among which 1,700 have been affirmed. These characters were mostly prayers by Shang rulers at divination and sacrificial rites, as well as simple records. Jiaguwen is mainly the pictograph with regular strokes and beautiful form, showing it had undergone a long development process. They provide important materials for research into the origin of Chinese characters.

  In the past, people generally considered jiaguwen of the Shang Dynasty as the earliest kind of Chinese characters. In 1980s, a few tortoise shells and animal bones carved with characters were unearthed in suburban Xi'an. Archaeologists confirmed these characters were about 4,000 years ago, even earlier than jiaguwen.

【来源:中国365棋牌游戏官方下载_365棋牌微信代理_365棋牌游戏怎么上分】

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